Paediatric HERMES

Respiratory diseases remain among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Yet paediatric respiratory medicine (PRM) is a young subspecialty which only started to develop in the 1940s. Many of the early leaders were physiologists and clinicians with a special interest in the breathing of children, who applied physiological techniques to study lung function in children.

Pediatric Pulmonology

This document was prepared by the American Board of Pediatrics Subboard of Pediatric Pulmonology for the purpose of developing in-training, certification, and maintenance of certification examinations. The outline defines the body of knowledge from which the Subboard samples to prepare its examinations. The content specification statements located under each category of the outline are used by item writers to develop questions for the examinations; they broadly address the specific elements of knowledge within each section of the outline.

Pulmonary function in children with idiopathic scoliosis

Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased work of breathing at rest, during exercise and sleep. Pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure may develop in severe disease. In this review the epidemiological and anatomical aspects of idiopathic scoliosis are noted, the pathophysiology and effects of idiopathic scoliosis on respiratory function are described, the pulmonary function testing including lung volumes, respiratory flow rates and airway resistance, chest wall movements, regional ventilation and perfusion, blood gases, response to exercise and sleep studies are presented. Preoperative pulmonary function testing required, as well as the effects of various surgical approaches on respiratory function are also discussed.


Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children: an evidence-based approach

There is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children who wheeze both during and outside discrete episodes. Investigations are only needed when in doubt about the diagnosis. Based on the limited evidence available, inhaled short-acting b2-agonists by metered-dose inhaler/spacer combination are recommended for symptomatic relief. Educating parents regarding causative factors and treatment is useful. Exposure to tobacco smoke should be avoided; allergen avoidance may be considered when sensitisation has been established. Maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is recommended for multiple-trigger wheeze;
benefits are often small. Montelukast is recommended for the treatment of episodic (viral) wheeze and can be started when symptoms of a viral cold develop. Given the large overlap in phenotypes, and the fact that patients can move from one phenotype to another, inhaled corticosteroids and montelukast may be considered on a trial basis in almost any preschool child with recurrent wheeze, but should be discontinued if there is no clear clinical benefit. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials with clear descriptions of patients are needed to improve the present recommendations on the treatment of these common syndromes.

Tracheostomy care in the home

There are hardly any controlled studies in paediatric tracheostomy care; instead, most established standards, procedures and details have been elaborated at the bedside by trial and error. Once the appropriate tube is chosen, tube care consists of tube change, fixation, management of secretions, humidification of inspired air and application of medications. The stoma requires cleaning, protection and dressing. Child care may be structured into monitoring, feeding, bathing and clothing. Preparing the home and family environment are important prerequisites for discharge from the hospital. Last but not least, the family of the child or other caregivers must undergo a structured and detailed training programme to become competent in long-term home care.

Οι ιοί και οι ιογενείς λοιμώξεις του αναπνευστικού συστήματος στα παιδιά

Οι ιογενείς λοιμώξεις αποτελούν τη συχνότερη αιτία από την οποία αρρωσταίνουν τα παιδιά και ο άνθρωπος γενικά. Ιδιαίτερα οι ιογενείς λοιμώξεις του αναπνευστικού συστήματος είναι η συχνότερη αιτία για επίσκεψη στον παιδίατρο ή για νοσηλεία του παιδιού στο νοσοκομείο.